Statement of Compliance
The Group and Company Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) as adopted by the EU and as applied in accordance with the Companies Act 2014 and as regards the Consolidated Financial Statements Article 4 of the IAS Regulations.
Basis of preparation
The Financial Statements have been prepared on the going concern basis and the historical cost convention.
All figures presented in the Financial Statements are in euro and are rounded to the nearest one hundred thousand except where otherwise indicated.
Basis of consolidation
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the information in the Remuneration Report that is described as being an integral part of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The Consolidated Financial Statements incorporate the Financial Statements of the Company and entities controlled by the Company (its subsidiaries) made up to 31 December each year. Control is achieved where the Company:
- has the power over the investee;
- is exposed, or has rights, to variable return from its involvement with the investee; and
- has the ability to use its power to affect its return.
In assessing control, potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible are taken into account.
Consolidation of a subsidiary begins when the Company obtains control over the subsidiary and ceases when the Company loses control of the subsidiary. Specifically, the results of subsidiaries acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the Consolidated Income Statement from the date the Company gains control until the date the Company ceases to control the subsidiary.
All intra-group transactions, balances, income and expenses are eliminated on consolidation.
New standards and interpretations
New and revised accounting standards and interpretations have been issued which are set out below. These will be adopted by the Group from the effective dates.
Standards effective for the Group from 1 January 2020
Effective date for periods commencing
IFRS 3 (amendments)
Definition of Business
1 January 2020
IFRS 9, IAS 39 and IFRS 7 (amendments)
Interest Rate Benchmark Reform
1 January 2020
IAS 1 and IAS 8 (amendments)
Definition of Material
1 January 2020
Amendments to References to the Conceptual Framework in IFRS Standards
1 January 2020
The above amended standards have been applied in the preparation of the Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2020 but did not have any material impact on the results or financial position of the Group.
Standards effective for the Group from 1 January 2021 or later
Effective date for periods commencing
IFRS 16 (amendment)
Covid-19 related rent concessions
1 June 2020
IFRS 9, IAS 39, IFRS 7, IFRS 4 and IFRS 16 (amendments)
Interest Rate Benchmark Reform
1 January 2021
IAS 1 (amendments)
Classification of liabilities as current or non-current
1 January 2023
IAS 1 (amendments)
Disclosure of Accounting Policies
1 January 2023
1 January 2023
IFRS 4 (amendments)
Extension of the Temporary Exemption from Applying IFRS 9
1 January 2023
IAS 16 (amendments)
Property, Plant and Equipment – Proceeds before Intended Use
1 January 2023
Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2018–2020
1 January 2023
IFRS 3 (amendments)
Reference to the Conceptual Framework
1 January 2023
IAS 37 (amendments)
Onerous Contracts – Cost of Fulfilling a Contract
1 January 2023
IAS 8 (amendments)
Definition of Accounting Estimates
1 January 2023
The above standards and amendments to standards have not been applied in the preparation of the Financial Statements for the year ended 31 December 2020. They are not expected to have a material impact on the results or financial position of the Group when applied in future periods.
Accounting policies applied in the preparation of the Financial Statements for the financial year ended 31 December 2020:
Revenue is measured based on the consideration specified in a contract concluded with a customer and excludes any amounts collected on behalf of third parties including taxes.
The principal activities from which the Group generates its revenue are set out below.
Product or Service
Nature and satisfaction of performance obligation
Passenger revenue is recognised over time as services are provided. Contracts are concluded during the booking process with a high degree of probability of collection of the sales proceeds. Sales proceeds are recognised as deferred revenue which the single performance obligation from the departure point to destination point are subsequently released to revenue over the elapsed time taken to complete the single performance obligation being the provision of transport between the departure point and destination point. The price is fixed at the time of booking. Where a customer is eligible to participate in loyalty programmes, the price is allocated based on the relative stand-alone selling price or expected selling price based on company data.
Deferred revenue is reduced for any refund paid to a customer where the Company is unable to complete the performance obligation. Ticket breakage, i.e. deferred untravelled revenue for no shows, is recognised in full once the original booked travel date has expired based on a no refund policy.
RoRo freight revenue is recognised over time as services are provided. Contracts are concluded during the booking process with a high degree of probability of collection of the sales proceeds. Sales proceeds are recognised as deferred revenue which are subsequently released to revenue over the elapsed time taken to complete the single performance obligation being the provision of transport between the departure point and destination point. The price is fixed at the time of booking or is otherwise variable if the customer has an active rebate arrangement. The contract price less the estimates of the most probable rebate amount is allocated to the performance obligation with the rebate amount retained in deferred revenue until paid.
Revenue from sales in bars and restaurants is recognised at the time of sale. The Group recognises a single contract for all goods and services in a transaction basket at the time of transaction with payment received at the same time. There is a single identifiable obligation to transfer title with the price fixed at the time of transaction.
Revenues earned from retail concessions is recognised over time based on declarations received up to the reporting date. For each concession the Group recognises a single contract involving the grant of a licence or creation of a right to provide services onboard vessels creating a single identifiable obligation. The price is treated as variable based on a percentage of sales.
Container and Terminal Division
Product or Service
Nature and satisfaction of performance obligation
LoLo container shipping revenue is recognised over time as services are provided. Contracts are concluded during the booking process with a high degree of probability of collection of the sales proceeds. Sales proceeds are recognised as deferred revenue which are subsequently released to revenue over the time based on effort expended on each activity (collection, shipping and delivery) undertaken in fulfilment of the single performance obligation being the provision of transport between the departure point and destination point. The price is fixed at the time of booking.
Stevedoring revenue is recognised over time in line with the number of containers loaded or discharged onto vessels in fulfilment of obligations. Contracts are concluded with customers covering services to be provided over time with a high degree of probability of collection of the sales proceeds. Sales proceeds are recognised once the performance obligations are satisfied i.e. the loading or discharge of a vessel. The price is fixed at the time of contract or is otherwise variable if the customer has an active rebate arrangement. The contract price less the best estimate of the most probable rebate amount is allocated to the performance obligation with the rebate amount retained in deferred revenue. As rebates are paid to customers, amounts included in deferred revenue are released with experience adjustments included as revenue.
Identifying a lease
Where a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration, it is treated as a lease.
(a) As Lessee
Where the Group acts as a lessee the Group recognises a right-of-use asset and lease liability at the lease commencement date, which is the date the underlying asset is available for our use.
Right-of-use assets are initially measured at cost, and subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated depreciation and impairment losses (if any) and adjusted for certain remeasurement of lease liabilities. The recognised right-of-use assets are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of their estimated useful lives and the lease term. Right-of-use assets are subject to impairment under IAS 36 Impairment of assets. Right-of-use assets are presented as a separate line item in the Statement of Financial Position.
Lease liabilities are initially measured at the present value of lease payments that are not paid at the commencement date, discounted using the incremental borrowing rate if the interest rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable. The lease liability is subsequently increased by the interest cost on the lease liability and decreased by lease payments made. In the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows the payments made are separated into the principal portion (presented within financing activities), and interest (presented in operating activities). Lease liabilities are remeasured if there is a change in future lease payments, a change in the lease term, or as appropriate, a change in the assessment of whether an extension option is reasonably certain to be exercised or a termination option is reasonable certain not to be exercised.
(b) As Lessor
The Group treats bareboat hire purchase sale agreements in relation to the disposal of vessels as finance leases where it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the underlying vessel to the charterer. The sales proceeds recognised at the commencement of the lease term by the Group are that implied by the fair value of the asset, which together with any initial direct costs equal to the net investment in the lease and are presented as a finance lease receivable in the Statement of Financial Position. Loss allowances on the finance lease receivables are estimated at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. Following initial measurement finance lease income is recognised in revenue and is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the outstanding net investment.
Lease payments receivable arising from the grant of a right-of-use vessel which does not meet the requirement of a finance lease are recognised as revenue on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant charter. The provision of operation and maintenance services is recognised on a daily basis at the applicable daily rate under the terms of the charter.
Concession and Licence agreements
Payments made under concession arrangements, where the Group benefits from the use of an asset or right and the obligation to make the payments has not been recognised in the Statement of Financial Position as a lease obligation, are charged to the Consolidated Income Statement as the rights conferred under the terms of the arrangement are consumed.
Benefits received and receivable as an incentive to enter into a concession agreement are also spread on a straight-line basis over the agreement term as a reduction of the expense.
The Group does not classify that element of a contract as a lease where the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time is based on variable consideration based on activity levels. In these circumstances any variable consideration is expensed to the Income Statement as the right is consumed.
The Group treats material items either individually or, if of a similar type, in aggregate, that derive from events or transactions that fall outside the ordinary activities of the Group as non-trading items. Non-trading items are presented separately on the face on the Consolidated Income Statement, separately disclosing any tax effects.
The individual financial statements of each Group entity are prepared in the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (its functional currency). For the purpose of the Consolidated Financial Statements, the results and financial position of each entity are expressed in euro, which is the functional currency of the Company, and the presentation currency for the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In preparing the financial statements of the individual companies, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At each statement of financial position date, monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing on the statement of financial position date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated. Exchange differences arising on the settlements of monetary items and on the retranslation of monetary items, are included in the Consolidated Income Statement for the financial year.
For the purpose of presenting Consolidated Financial Statements, the assets and liabilities of the Group’s foreign operations are expressed in euro using exchange rates prevailing on the statement of financial position date. Income and expense items are translated at the average exchange rates for the year, unless exchange rates fluctuate significantly during the period, in which case the exchange rates at the date of transactions are used.
Exchange differences arising on the translation of foreign currency subsidiaries, if any, are recognised in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income and accumulated in equity in the translation reserve. On disposal of a foreign subsidiary the cumulative translation difference for that foreign subsidiary is transferred to the Consolidated Income Statement as part of the gain or loss on disposal.
In order to hedge its exposure to certain foreign exchange risks, the Group enters into forward contracts and options (see below for details of the Group’s accounting policies in respect of such derivative financial instruments).
On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign operations are recognised in the Statement of Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in equity.
Finance costs comprise interest payable on borrowings calculated using the effective interest rate.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement in the financial year in which they are incurred.
The interest expense component of lease payments relating to lease obligations as a lessee are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement using the effective interest rate method.
Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition. The net interest income on defined benefit obligations is recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement under finance income in accordance with IAS 19 Employee Benefits.
Retirement benefit schemes
Defined benefit obligations
For defined benefit obligations, the cost of providing benefits and the liabilities of the schemes are determined using the projected unit credit method with assets valued at bid price and actuarial valuations being carried out by independent and professionally qualified actuaries at each statement of financial position date. Current service costs, past service cost, or credit, and net interest expense or income are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement. Adjustments in respect of a settlement, a curtailment and past service cost, or credit, are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement in the period of a plan amendment. Remeasurement comprising actuarial gains and losses is reflected in the Statement of Financial Position with a charge or credit recognised in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income in the period in which they occur.
The net interest cost on defined benefit obligations has been recorded in the Consolidated Income Statement under finance income. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset.
In addition to the pension schemes operated by the Group, certain employees are included in the Merchant Navy Officers Pension Fund (MNOPF). As the Group has no control over the calls for contributions made from the MNOPF, it has determined that the fund should be accounted for as a defined benefit obligation and its liability recognised accordingly. The Group’s share of the MNOPF deficit as advised by the trustees is included with the other Group schemes.
The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position represents the deficit or surplus in the Group’s defined benefit obligations. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the scheme.
Defined contribution pension schemes
Payments to defined contribution pension schemes are recognised as an expense as they fall due. Any contributions outstanding at the period end are included as an accrual in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position.
Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax. The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from profit as reported in the Consolidated Income Statement because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the statement of financial position date. A provision is recognised for those matters for which the tax determination is uncertain, but it is considered probable that there will be a future outflow of funds to a tax authority. The provisions are measured at the best estimate of the amount expected to become payable.
A proportion of the Group’s profits fall within the charge to tonnage tax, under which regime taxable profits are relieved to an amount based on the tonnage of vessels employed during the year. In accordance with the IFRIC guidance on IAS 12 Income Taxes, the tonnage tax charge is included within other operating expenses in the Consolidated Income Statement.
Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the Financial Statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit, and is accounted for using the statement of financial position liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each statement of financial position date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset realised based on tax laws and rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the statement of financial position date. Deferred tax is charged or credited to the Consolidated Income Statement, except when it relates to items charged or credited directly to the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income or is dealt with in equity.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.
Property, plant and equipment
Vessels are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.
Depreciation on vessels is charged so as to write off the cost less residual value over the estimated economic useful life on a straight-line basis. The amount initially recognised in respect of Ropax vessels less estimated residual value, is allocated between hull and machinery and hotel and catering elements for depreciation purposes. In respect of LoLo vessels, all value is attributed to hull and machinery.
In considering residual values of vessels, the Directors have taken into account the valuation of the scrap value of the vessels per light displacement tonne. Residual values are reviewed annually and updated if required. Estimations of economic life of vessels are a key accounting judgement and estimate in the Financial Statements. Any change in estimates are accounted for prospectively.
The estimated economic useful lives of vessels are as follows:
Hull and Machinery
Conventional Ropax vessels
30 – 35 years
15 – 25 years
Hotel and Catering
For conventional ferries, hull and machinery components are depreciated over an initial estimated useful life of 30 years but this is reviewed on a periodic basis for vessels remaining in service 25 years after original construction.
Costs incurred in renewing the vessel certificate are capitalised as a separate component under vessels in tangible fixed assets and depreciated over the period to the next expected drydocking required for certificate renewal. Costs and accumulated depreciation relating to expired certificates are treated as disposals. The estimated useful lives for drydock assets are as follows:
1 – 5 years
Estimations of economic life and residual values are reassessed at each reporting date. Any change in estimates are accounted for prospectively.
Property, plant and equipment, other than and freehold land, are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land is stated at cost and is not depreciated. Cost comprises purchase price and directly attributable costs.
The amount initially recognised in respect of an item of other assets is allocated to its significant parts and each such part is depreciated separately. In respect of stevedoring equipment related costs are allocated between superstructure and plant.
With the exception of freehold land and assets under construction, depreciation on property, plant and equipment is charged so as to write off the cost over the estimated economic useful lives, using the straight-line method, on the following bases:
10 – 150 years
Plant, equipment and vehicles
4 – 25 years
12 – 20 years
Assets under construction, the construction of which takes a substantial period of time are recorded at the cost incurred to date less any impairment loss and no depreciation is charged on these amounts. Depreciation commences when the assets are ready for their intended use. Cost includes borrowing costs capitalised in accordance with the Group’s accounting policies. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the construction of property, plant and equipment are capitalised as part of the cost of the assets up to the date of substantial completion.
Gains or losses on the disposal of property, plant and equipment represent the difference between the net proceeds and the carrying value at the date of sale. Income is accounted for when there is an unconditional exchange of contracts, or when all necessary terms and conditions have been fulfilled.
Costs incurred on the acquisition and commissioning of computer software are capitalised, as are costs directly associated with developing computer software programmes, if it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to these assets will flow to the Group and the cost of these assets can be measured reliably. Computer software costs recognised as assets are written off on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, which is normally five years.
Impairment of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets
At each statement of financial position date, the Group performs a review to ascertain whether there are any indications of impairment which may affect carrying amounts of its property, plant and equipment and intangible assets. If any such indications exist, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine whether the affected assets have actually suffered an impairment loss. Where an asset does not generate cash flows that are independent from other assets, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects the current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset or cash generating unit is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset or cash generating unit is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised as an expense immediately.
Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (cash generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the assets (cash generating units) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised as income immediately.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost represents suppliers’ invoiced cost net of any related discounts etc. determined on a first in, first out basis. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price less all costs to be incurred in marketing, selling and distribution.
Consideration paid to purchase the Company’s equity share capital is deducted from the total shareholders’ equity and classified as treasury shares until such shares are cancelled. No gain or loss is recognised on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the treasury shares. Where such shares are subsequently sold or reissued, any consideration received is included in total shareholders’ equity.
Where shares are cancelled an amount equivalent to the nominal value of the cancelled shares is transferred from retained earnings to the capital redemption reserve.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised on the Group and Company’s Statement of Financial Position when the Group and Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
Trade and other receivables are initially recognised at transaction price and subsequently carried at amortised cost, net of allowance for expected credit losses. Any trade and other receivables included in non-current assets are carried at amortised cost in accordance with the effective interest rate method.
The Group applies the simplified approach to providing for expected credit losses (ECL) required by IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the trade receivables. The Group uses an allowance matrix to measure the ECL of trade receivables based on its credit loss rates. Expected loss rates are based on historical payment profiles of sales and the corresponding historical credit loss experience. The historical loss rates are adjusted to reflect current and forward economic factors if there is evidence to suggest these factors will affect the ability of the customer to settle receivables. The Group has determined the ECL default rate using market default risk probabilities with regards to its key customers. Balances are written off when the probability of recovery is assessed as being remote.
Trade receivables are derecognised when the Group no longer controls the contractual rights that comprise the receivables, which is normally the case when the asset is sold or the rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, and the Group has not retained substantially all the credit risks and control of the receivable has transferred.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand and on demand deposits.
Financial liabilities and equity
Financial liabilities and equity instruments issued by the Group are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into. An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Group after deducting all of its liabilities. The accounting policies adopted for specific financial liabilities and equity instruments are set out below.
Interest-bearing bank loans and overdrafts are recorded at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Overdrafts are set off against cash balances in accordance with the contractual terms of any set off agreement. Finance charges, including premiums payable on settlement or redemption and direct issue costs, are expensed in the Consolidated Income Statement using the effective interest rate method and are added to the carrying amount of the instrument to the extent that they are not settled in the period in which they arise. Bank borrowings are classified as financial liabilities and are measured subsequently at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method.
Trade payables are classified as other financial liabilities, are initially measured at fair value, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method.
Equity instruments issued by the Company are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
The Group’s activities expose it primarily to the financial risks of changes in foreign exchange rates and interest rates. The Group may use foreign exchange forward contracts to hedge these exposures.
The use of financial derivatives is governed by the Group’s policies approved by the Board of Directors, which provide written principles on the use of financial derivatives consistent with the Group’s risk management strategy. The Group does not use derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.
Derivative financial instruments are held in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position at their fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that are designated, and are effective, as hedges of changes in future cash flows are recognised directly in other comprehensive income. Any ineffective portion of the hedge is recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement. When the cash flow hedge of a firm commitment or forecasted transaction subsequently results in the recognition of an asset or a liability, then, at the time the asset or liability is recognised, the associated gains or losses on the derivative that was previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity are included in the initial measurement of the asset or liability. For hedges that do not result in the recognition of an asset or liability, amounts accumulated in equity are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement in the same period in which the hedged item affects profit or loss.
Changes in fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the Consolidated Income Statement as they arise.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedge instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument accumulated in equity is retained in equity until the forecasted transactions occur. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss accumulated in equity is transferred to the Consolidated Income Statement in the period.
A contingent liability is disclosed unless the possibility of an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote.
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that the Group will be required to settle that obligation. Provisions are measured at the Directors’ best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the statement of financial position date, and are discounted to present value where the effect is material.
Financial guarantee contracts
Where the Group enters into financial guarantee contracts to guarantee the indebtedness of other parties, the Group considers these to be insurance arrangements and accounts for them as such. The Group treats the guarantee contract as a contingent liability until such time it becomes probable that the Group will be required to make a payment under the guarantee.
The Group issues equity-settled share-based payments to certain employees. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value (excluding the effect of non-market based vesting conditions) at the date of grant. The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Group’s estimate of the shares expected to vest as a result of the effect of non-market based vesting conditions.
For awards where vesting will be determined by market based vesting conditions, those granted prior to 1 January 2019 were fair value measured using a binomial pricing model. Monte-Carlo modelling was used for awards granted after 1 January 2019.
The expected life used in the model has been adjusted, based on management’s best estimate, for the effects of non-transferability, exercise restrictions and behavioural considerations.
Employee benefits expense
Wages, salaries, bonuses, social security contributions, paid annual leave and sick leave are accrued in the period in which the associated services are rendered by the employees of the Group. A liability for a termination benefit is recognised at the earlier of when an entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and the entity recognises any related restructuring costs.
Distributions are accounted for when they are paid, through retained earnings. Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholders’ rights to receive payment have been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Group and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably). Dividends received from fellow subsidiaries are eliminated on consolidation.
Operating profit is stated after non-trading items arising from continuing operations.